The Roman Vestiges of Jerash in Jordan
When Rome became a powerful empire, the armies conquered Syria and, commanded by Pompey, walked from Damascus to Jordan, liberating the pillaged Greek cities. Pompey constituted the Decapolis, a commercial league of ten cities, this representing a unique political phenomenon in the Roman Empire. Although they were submitted to the Roman Governor for Syria, those cities enjoyed an incredibly high level of autonomy. Among those towns were found Philadelphia, the present Amman, Gerasa, the present Jerash, Godara now Um Queis and Pella now Tabaqat Fahil. The monumental ruins are of great importance in these cities and especially in Jerash, Um Queis and Amman. Jerash is considered the most complete and best preserved Roman town of the region and often referred to as the "Pompeii of the Middle-East".
In the second half of the Ist century BC, Jerash gained a huge popularity and could achieve a vast program of constructions, namely the Oval Forum, the Cardo Maximus and both South and North Decumanus whose colonnade really is extraordinary. The Temple of Zeus was rebuilt in the year 22 AD and remained uncompleted until 76 AD. The North gate was finished in 75-76 AD. The Oval Forum, the Temple of Artemis, the Nymphaeum, and both amphitheaters were built at that time. All of these monuments profited by donations from rich citizens. In 90 AD, the town was part of the Roman Province of Arabia. Two thermae were also erected in 106 AD. Emperor Hadrian visited Jerash in 129-130 AD and a triumphal arch was inaugurated to commemorate the event. Water came from the sources Ain El Quayrawan and Birkitain located North of the city. In 350 AD, a large Christian community lived in Jerash, the mosaics of the churches can still be observed today.
The decline of the town is a consequence of the Persian invasion in 614. Nevertheless, Jerash knew prosperity during the Ummayad period, which was confirmed by the new excavations. In 746, an earthquake caused many destructions in and around Jerash. During the Crusades, the temple of Artemis was turned a fortress. Since 1981, the Jerash Festival and Roman Army Chariot Experience (RACE) welcome more and more tourists.
The Oval Forum at Jerash.
Image source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e6/Jerash11-Forum%28js%29.jpg
Image source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0c/Jerash25-nimpheum%28js%29.jpg
The Arch of Hadrian.
Image source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dc/Jerash_BW_1.JPG
The North Tetrapylon.
Image source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b8/Jerash30-north_tetrapylon%28js%29.jpg
The North Amphitheater.
Image source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/34/Jerash_BW_16.JPG
Temple of Artemis.
Image source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d1/Jerash_BW_24.JPG
Temple of Zeus.
Image source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/32/Jerash_BW_19.JPG
Temple of Dyonisos.
Image source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/80/Jerash_Cathedral_Gateway.jpg