Facts About India (Geography)

Facts about India.Indian geography. The geography of India.landmarks of india. The capital of India is Delhi. The largest city in India is Mumbai. India's most iconic landmark is the Taj Mahal. India facts. India geography.

With a coastline of 7,517 km and a total landmass of 3,287,240 sq km, India is the world's seventh largest country.

Consisting of 28 states and 7 union territories with a population of 1,198,003,000, it has the world's second largest population after -china/ .

India is classed as a sub-continent as it lies on it's own continental plate, the Indian Tectonic plate, a minor plate within the Indo - Australian plate, ( Asia ).

Politically it is part of the continent of Asia, but geographically as it contains more than one race, language and religion, is again, classified as a sub - continent.

Culturally, linguistically and genetically, India is the most diverse geographical location after the continent of Africa.

It is governed by a democratic parliament, with a president at it's head, and is the most populous democracy in the world, with the world's 12th largest economy.It is the world's fastest growing economy, although it contains the world's highest concentration of poor, 42 % of the population and has the world's highest rate of child malnutrition, at 46 % of it's population under the age of three.

The country has complete freedom of religion, with the three dominant religions of Hinduism,80.5 %, Islam, 13.4 % and Sikhism, 1.9 %, having the largest followers.

It's main languages are Hindi spoken by 74 % of the population with English classified as a subsidiary official language.Each one of it's 28 states and 7 territories have their own language and the country recognises another 21 with official status. There are also another 1,652 dialects spoken there.

The country has a literacy rate of 64.8 % ( Males 75.3 % Females 53.7 % ) with the State of Kerala having the highest instance at 91 % and the state of Bihar having the lowest at 47 %.


                                          The Taj Mahal, India's most iconic landmark.

                                                     ( Photograph courtesy of Dhirad )


Climatically India has four main climate groups, Tropical dry, Tropical wet, Sub - Tropical humid and Montane.

The climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas, the massive mountain range to the country's north, and the Thar Desert, in the north - west of the country, both of which help drive the Monsoon, which falls during June and October providing India with most of it's annual rainfall.

The Himalaya's also prevent the cold Katabatic winds of central Asia from reaching India, giving India a much warmer climate than other countries of the same latitude.


Lying north of the Equator, India's coastline is made up of 43 % sand beaches, 46 % mud flat or marshland and 11 % cliffs and rockface, and is protected by two coastal mountain ranges, the Eastern Ghats on it's eastern Bay of Bengal coast and the Western Ghats, on it's western Arabian sea coast.

It's interior is flanked by the largest mountain range on the planet, the Himilaya's in the north, which is the source of 11 of India's main river systems, with the Ganga ( Ganges ) being the longest at 2,510 km.

Becouse of it's diverse size India consists of every major type of landscape, from grass steppe land to arid desert from fertile arable land at it's river delta's to vegetationless mountainous outcrop.12 % of the country is covered by dense forest.

India lies within the Indomalaya ecozone, and displays a significant bio diversity, which consists of 33 % of endemic plant life, 12.6 % of endemic mammals and 4.5 % of endemic bird life.

It is home to 500 wildlife sanctuaries, 13 biosphere reserves and 25 wetland protected areas.

The international union for the conservation of nature ( I.U.C.N ) has designated 172 of the country's animal species as threatened with extinction.


                                                           Landmarks of Mumbai.


It's largest city is Mumbai, formerly Bombay, which is situated on India's central western coast. Made up of 7 islands covering an area of 603.4 sq km in the state of Maharshtra, with a population of 14 million, it is a cosmopolitan and modern city, home to India's Reserve Bank, the Indian Stock Exchange and the Hindi film and T.V industry, Bollywood.

The city is served by an extensive rail and metro system, 4 major roadways leading away from the city, it's local bus service, B.E.S.T buses, 2 major ports, Mumbai port and Jawaharlal Nehru port and the Charapati Shivaji International Airport.

it's main seafront and promenade has been extensively built up and warrants one of the most expensive sea front property locations in the world.

However 60 % of it's population 800,000 people, live in slum areas.

The city has a mix of Modern, Colonial and Gothic architecture, and is served by the Borivili National Park, which hosts lake Tulsi and Lake Vihar within it's environs.

As well as theatres, museums, art galleries and extensive shopping malls, Mumbai offers all the normal activities associated with any modern city, including 4 golf courses and the Mahalaxmi horse racing course and a host of international hotels.

The city as a whole has an annual temperature of 27.2 degrees c and an annual rainfall of 85.31 mm. It sits on a seismically active zone due to it's presence of 23 fault lines in the vacinity, which means it is in imminent danger of attracting an earthquake of over 6 on the Richter scale.


                                                               Landmarks of Delhi.


It's capital city is Delhi, situated in the Capital Territory of the same name. It is situated in the north west of the country and covers an area of 1,484 sq km.

Delhi is India's third largest city and became the country's capital in 1912 superceding the previous capital Calcutta ( Kolkata ).

Situated on the banks of the River Yamunda, it is divided into nine districts and has a population of nearly 14 million.The new national capital is a mix of ancient and modern architecture, having first been built by the Moghul Emporer Shah Jehan in the 17th century,

Shah Jehan is also the builder of India's most prolific monument, The Taj Mahal, built on the banks of the River Yamunda in the city of Agra, in honour of his wife Mumtaz Mahal, who died in 1631. The monument was eventually finished in 1653 and is classified as one of the ancient wonders of the world. 


                                               INDIAN RAILWAY NETWORK

The Indian railway network was created in 1857 and today is the fourth largest network in the world with 64,215 kilometres of track, sixteen railway zones and 7,083 stations.

The system carries twenty five million passengers and 2.5 million tons of freight daily.

The Indian Railway Company, a governmental run organisation, is the world's largest employer with 1.6 million employees.

The system runs on a multi gauge network of broad, metre and narrow gauge tracks.

The state run rail industry owns nine thousand locomotives, 60,000 carriages and 230,000 freight wagons.

The Indian Railway is also reknowned for it's medical trains or Lifeline Express. To read about this facinating railway medical facility visit this page -  indias-train-of-hope-the-lifeline-express


                                                                 Map of India.

India has twenty eight states and seven union territories.

The largest of these states is Rajasthan at 342,239 square kilometres and the smallest state is Goa with just 3,702 square kilometres.

The most populous of these states is Uttar Pradesh with a population of 199.5 million and the least populated state is Sikkim with just 600,000 people.

The word pradesh means land, but when seen on an Indian map the word means province.

The above map's references are -


1 - Andhra Pradesh

2 - Arunachal

3 - Assam.

4 - Bihar.

5 - Chattisgarh.

6 - Goa.

7 - Gujurat.

8 - Haryana.

9 - Himachal Pradesh.

10 - Jammu and Kashmir.

11 - Jharkhand.

12 - Karnataka.

13 - Kerala.

14 - Madhya Pradesh.

15 - Maharashtra.

16 - Manipur.

17 - Meghalaya.

18 - Mizoram.

19 - Nagaland.

20 - Orissa.

21 - Punjab.

22 - Rajasthan.

23 - Tripura.

24 - Tamil Nadu.

25 - Tripura.

26 - Uttar Pradesh.

27 - Uttarakhand

28 - West Bengal.


A - Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

B - Chandigarh.

C - Dadra and Nagar Haveli.

D - Daman and Diu.

E - Lakshadweep.

F - National Capital Territory of Delhi.

G - Puducherry.

Time zone. UTC + 5.30

Call Code +91.

Int. TLD .in

Currency. Rupee.

If you enjoyed my country file account of India, you may like to check out my article about India's facinating Lifeline Express, India's medical Train of Hope.


                                                        © D.B.Bellamy.December.2009.

                                  Landmark montages and map courtesy of wikimedia commons.


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